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Current Topics in Toxicology   Volumes    Volume 1 
Nephrotoxicity of ifosfamide
James E. Springate, Mary L. Taub
Pages: 181 - 184
Number of pages: 4
Current Topics in Toxicology
Volume 1 

Copyright © 2004 Research Trends. All rights reserved


Renal injury is a relatively common side effect of the chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide. Unlike cyclophosphamide, its non-nephrotoxic isomeric relative, ifosfamide metabolism releases chloroacetaldehyde, which is the likely cause  for kidney damage caused by this medication. Chloroacetaldehyde produces dose-dependent impairment in renal tubule cell function, depletion of cellular ATP and glutathione, and membrane lipid peroxidation in vitro. Clinically, this damage would cause the Fanconi syndrome, a common manifestation of ifosfamide toxicity, while    complete loss of cell viability would produce    acute tubular necrosis and renal insufficiency, another devastating ifosfamide side effect. Because the kidney is capable of absorbing and metabolizing ifosfamide, it appears that intrarenally rather     than systemically generated chloroacetaldehyde or related metabolites are responsible for nephrotoxicity. For unknown reasons, currently available uroprotectant drugs, mesna and amifostine, are effective in vitro but  not in vivo.

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