Till 2009, when the first sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) was found in Carinthia, Austria was believed to be free of sandflies. Then, in 2010, the occurrence of sandflies was reported for the first time, also in Eastern Austria. The present study was designed to investigate the density and the period of sandfly activity in this region. During July and August 2012 and 2013, sandfly trapping (476 and 284 trap nights, respectively) was performed at two capture sites in Eastern Austria where sandflies had been detected in 2010. Sandflies trapped with battery-operated CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) miniature light traps were transferred into 70% ethanol for identification based on morphological characters. In addition, temperature and precipitation data of the trapping regions were retrospectively obtained for the trapping season as well as for the respective previous months. In 2012, a total of 9 sandflies, 1 male and 8 females, were captured. In 2013, 20 specimens, 18 females and 2 males, were captured. All specimens were identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908. The sandflies were found during the periods July 2nd to August 20th in 2012 and July 10th to August 13th in 2013. No significant correlation between numbers of catches and mean daily temperature was found. However, the mean monthly day temperature was only 24.2 °C in July 2012 compared to 25.9 °C in July 2013 when most specimens were captured. Of course, total numbers are very low. However, although the trapping period was shorter in 2013, more sandflies were caught than in 2012. The present data confirm the existence of stable populations of sandflies in Eastern Austria and suggest a tendency towards optimized conditions for sandfly occurrence in Eastern Austria. These results might become of considerable medical relevance with respect to a possible circulation of Leishmania spp. and phleboviruses.
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