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Trends in Entomology   Volumes    Volume 10 
The current status of fumigation in India: Constrains and recent developments
R. Meenatchi, K. Alagusundaram
Pages: 97 - 103
Number of pages: 7
Trends in Entomology
Volume 10 

Copyright © 2014 Research Trends. All rights reserved

Fumigation using chemicals is the common practice widely used for the control of insects in stored grains. Due to their broad-spectrum activity, high toxicity, quick knock-down effect, relatively cheaper cost and easy availability, chemical fumigations are popular. Methyl bromide is considered to be a significant ozone depleting substance with a potential of 0.4. However, it will be deregistered in India by 2020 and phosphine is regarded as the world’s most effective and widely used fumigant for treating stored products next to methyl bromide. Solid formulations of aluminum and magnesium phosphide in the form of tablets, pellets and sachets have been used for many years to generate phosphine for the fumigation of grains. Indiscriminate usage of aluminium phosphide against stored product pests not only have caused insect resistance problems, but it is also seen to leave residues in the treated commodity. Poorly constructed warehouses and improper sealing methods result in uneven gas distribution and leakages. Combinations of carbon dioxide and air with phosphine are more efficient in managing the stored product pests than treating only with phosphine gas. ECO2FUME and VAPOR3PHOS are the gaseous fumigants patented and registered for treating cereals, pulses, dry fruits and nuts in Australia, China, Thailand, USA, New Zealand and several other countries. Sulfuryl fluoride, ethyl formate and ethane dinitrile are emerging as alternative fumigants. Bulk storage with proper fumigation practices such as application of desired concentration of fumigant, maintaining the required concentration throughout the fumigation period and active recirculation for uniform distribution of gas will help to manage the stored product pests effectively by eliminating the resistant strains.
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