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Current Topics in Toxicology   Volumes    Volume 10 
Characterization of functionalized nanodiamonds and their effects on cell viability and gene expression in human lung epithelial cells
Abebe E. Mengesha, Miezan J. Ezoulin, Tao Zhang, Karin Gaudenz, Christopher Seidel, Valery Khabashesku, James Murowchick, Bi-Botti Celestin Youan
Pages: 49 - 62
Number of pages: 14
Current Topics in Toxicology
Volume 10 

Copyright © 2014 Research Trends. All rights reserved

The increasing application of nanodiamond and its derivatives in many industries and healthcare products warrants a critical and urgent need to elucidate potential adverse effects. This study evaluated the cell viability and gene expression patterns of human lung epithelial cell line (Calu-3) exposed to nanodiamond (ND) and 4 surface functionalized nanodiamonds (SF-NDs): glycine-ND (Gly-ND); glucose-ND (Glu-ND); fluorinated-ND (F-ND) and ethylenediamine-ND (EDA-ND). The ND and SF-NDs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum. The cytotoxicity of ND and SF-NDs was evaluated using MTS assay. Gene expression profiles were generated using microarray analysis for Calu-3 cells exposed to ND. The results of XRD and ATR-FTIR spectra provided evidence for successful functionalization of ND. The morphological and particle size analysis using SEM and DLS revealed that ND and SF-NDs form agglomeration. The cytotoxicity study data showed that ND and SF-NDs exhibit concentration dependent material-specific toxicity with the general trend for biocompatibility: Gly-ND > Glu-ND > ND > F-ND > EDA-ND. Microarray analysis indicated a subtle cellular response to ND with few genes affected more than 2-fold up or down. However, some gene expressions such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NQO1) showed up-regulation while a gene associated with the metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was down-regulated. In conclusion, at the concentrations of < 100 µg/mL, ND and SF-NDs appeared to be safe to human lung epithelial cells in vitro after 24 hrs exposure.
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