16S r-RNA profilings of 32 soil samples from prehistorical ramparts and ancient mining and smelting places of central Germany confirm soil pH as the dominating factor for the composition of bacterial communities. Beside pH, some of the places can be distinguished by single bacterial groups (operational taxonomical units, OTUs). This includes thermophilic and halophilic microorganisms as well as sulphur-metabolizing types. A certain part of samples contains OTUs related to ruminant animals, which could be interpreted as a hint on formerly concentration of cattle on areas which are now covered by forest.
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