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The inflammatory caspases are crucial for innate defenses against invading pathogens. Though the canonical inflammasomes have been extensively studied, recently much attention has been focused on the role caspase-11 plays within the non-canonical inflammasome. Activation of the non-canonical inflammasome promotes caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis, but the downstream signaling pathways have remained obscure. This review will examine critical components required for pyroptosis downstream of caspase-11. In addition, we will discuss novel non-pyroptotic functions of the inflammatory caspases that promote the destruction of microbes. Both of these pathways shed new light into the distinct roles the caspases play in the host response that will contribute to new strategies aimed at enhancing the physiological role of pyroptotic and non-pyroptotic functions during infection and inflammatory diseases.