Infectious disease-causing bacterial pathogens that harbor multidrug resistance may be difficult to treat effectively. Such bacterial pathogens may possess an assortment of cellular mechanisms, such as antimicrobial resistance, for conferring virulence and infectious disease. One major antimicrobial resistance mechanism involves the extrusion of growth inhibitory substances from the internal milieu of the pathogenic bacterium. Several transporter superfamilies have emerged as being chiefly responsible for the efflux of multiple antimicrobial agents from bacteria. Of these protein superfamilies, the so-called major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of solute transporters encompasses several key and well-studied multidrug efflux pump systems. These multidrug transporters of the superfamily are, thus, excellent targets for modulation. Of the various drug efflux pump modulators which have been discovered so far, those that are relatively non-toxic to humans are obviously the most promising modulatory candidates. This review article briefly summarizes several key bacterial pathogens and modulation targets exemplified by multidrug efflux systems of the major facilitator superfamily.
View Full Article