Gliomas are deadly brain tumors that constitute the majority of all malignant brain tumors. Over 12,000 new patients are diagnosed annually with glioblastomas (GBM), (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV glioma) in the USA. Current stand-of-care therapies include tumor resection (surgery), radiotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, and the use of bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Malignant gliomas are characterized by their uncontrolled cellular proliferation, unregulated vascular growth (angiogenesis), are highly diffuse and infiltrative, have propensity for necrosis, and are resistant to apoptosis. Reoccurrence is common, and there currently are no treatments available that will significantly prolong a patient’s life. This review will primarily focus on current clinical anti-glioma therapies, and recent preclinical targeted research. Specifically, we will summarize molecular features of high-grade gliomas, current treatments and their efficacies, and different types of therapeutic agents (i.e. targeted and immune therapies) that are currently in development or already in clinical trials. This review is a comprehensive pre-clinical assessment of anti-cancer therapeutic agents that may be potentially promising for newly diagnosed and recurring patients with high-grade gliomas, such as GBMs.
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