The association between vitamin D and cancer has long been studied, but the results have been variable. Thus, there does not seem to be a consensus on whether vitamin D has a beneficial anti-cancer effect. This review not only summarizes the association between vitamin D and cancer risk and results of clinical trials involving vitamin D, but explores some of the reasons that contribute to the variability of study outcomes. Highlighted are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that contribute to variability in the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation. Understanding these differences can personalize approaches to optimize the effectiveness of vitamin D in limiting cancer risk.
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