Push-pull strategies for controlling pests have been developed for use in several different agroecosystems. The push-pull strategy involves the use of both repellent plants within crops to ward off pests and attraction plants at the edge of crops. Studies have demonstrated the repellent action of both Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae) and Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) against the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and the attraction of Emilia sonchifolia L. (Asteraceae) for CBB. To manipulate the distribution and abundance of CBB, a push-pull strategy was applied to coffee plantations, and the field performance of this strategy was examined. The results showed that the push-pull strategy was effective, because the action of the repellent plants combined with the effects of the alcohol traps reduced the CBB infestation to 5.2%. This is the first time a push-pull system in coffee crops has been evaluated worldwide. The results indicate that the push-pull strategy for use in the agroecological management of CBB is promising.
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