Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes that results in a disease characterized mainly by polyarthralgia and high fever. The virus was first detected in Brazil in 2014 and since then, thousands of cases were reported in the country resulting in a considerable amount of deaths associated with the virus. In this review, we summarize all aspects of chikungunya virus infection and the characteristics of the recent outbreak in Brazil, discuss some complications triggered by this infection, as well as the available diagnostic options and some alternatives for treatment of the disease, and prevention of future epidemics of chikungunya virus. The dissemination of knowledge acquired by studying such diseases is important to devise strategies to face outbreaks occurring elsewhere.
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