It is well-documented that a sedentary lifestyle increases the incidence of cardiovascular problems, obesity, and type II diabetes, whereas active exercise (e.g., walking moderately at least 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week) can prevent or reverse these debilitating and life-threatening health problems. However, physical inactivity and ageing, another risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular problems and metabolic diseases, also impair central nervous system neurons and corresponding cognitive functions. New breakthrough findings provide evidence in both young adults and elderly persons that aerobic exercise can significantly improve cognition and mental functions and cellular processes generally believed to underlie consciousness. This mini-review summarizes the most recent and relevant findings about the effects of aerobic exercise on attention, focus, concentration, consciousness, and mindfulness in people of all ages with or without cognitive impairment and disability.
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