It is widely accepted that an effective HIV-1 preventative vaccine must elicit antibodies that can block virus acquisition. Although, anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) have been isolated, unfortunately, no vaccine immunogens have been designed that can elicit these bnAbs in uninfected at-risk individuals. Some studies have suggested that other antibody functionalities, besides neutralization, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), may prevent HIV-1 acquisition. In contrast to bnAbs, ADCC-inducing antibodies may be more amenable to elicitation by current vaccine technologies. This review will provide clarity about the role of nAbs and ADCC-inducing antibodies in preventing transmission, highlight mechanisms that potentially explain how ADCC-mediating antibodies may work, and speculate about the generation of these novel protective antibodies. Anti-HIV-1 ADCC-inducing antibodies may provide a new avenue for developing an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
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