This study was conducted to assess heavy metal contamination in fish and the potential risks to human health associated with fish consumption. The fish samples were collected from the urban rivers of Gujarat (Narmada River and Sabarmati River) during the summer season in 2017. Quantification of fourteen metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) was carried out using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The obtained results indicate that none of metal exceeds the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI 2016) except Lead (Pb) in Narmada River and Sabarmati River. Target hazard quotients (THQs) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to assess the health risks to the local population through the consumption of heavy metal-contaminated fish. The values of THQ and HI were less than 1 which means that consumption of these fish is not hazardous for human health. The findings of the present study may lead to measures that will be useful for regulatory bodies to control the potential health risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the future.
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