Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer, occurring mainly in children three to five years of age. ALL is a complex disease that involves both B-lineage and T-lineage precursor cells. Several studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as a new class of biomarkers for ALL. These small, single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules regulate gene expression through direct interaction with specific messenger RNAs. This review aims to summarize data from studies on miRNA and childhood ALL and presents the results of a gene ontology enrichment analysis performed on gene sets regulated by miRNAs. Most studies reported that different miRNAs are involved in childhood ALL; miR-196b-5p, miR-128-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-27a-3p, and miR-708-5p were the most frequent. These miRNAs regulate genes and biological functions related to hematopoiesis, cell death, and proliferation. Although some miRNAs are promising biomarkers for ALL diagnosis, their use in clinical practice is still a challenge. This review reveals the need for further investigations on the role of miRNAs in disease development, diagnosis, and prognosis.
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