This article is a brief review of some existing studies on a new family of composites. Elastomer nanocomposites are a combination of a rubbery matrix and reinforcing fillers (silicates) that have at least one dimension in the nanometer range. The emphasis is given on the importance of modifying the silicates in organosilicates (organoclays) that are able to produce intercalated, exfoliated or intermediate nanocomposites. This transformation can be done with cationic surfactants like primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary alkylammonium or alkylphosphonium cations. The review presents the techniques used, in general, for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites, like in-situ polymerization, solution, latex and melt mixing. The last two techniques are preferred in the case of elastomer nanocomposites, due to the fact that many elastomers are obtained in a latex form and the melt mixing is a common phase in the rubber technology.
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