Home | My Profile | Contact Us
Research Trends Products  |   order gateway  |   author gateway  |   editor gateway  
Register | Forgot Password

Author Resources
 Author Gateway
 Article submission guidelines

Editor Resources
 Editor/Referee Gateway

 Regional Subscription Agents/Distributors
Current Trends in Microbiology   Volumes    Volume 16 
Cryptococcus spp. virulence mechanisms and treatment challenges
Francisca Beatriz Lima Cavalcante, Túlio César Ferreira
Pages: 93 - 108
Number of pages: 16
Current Trends in Microbiology
Volume 16 

Copyright © 2022 Research Trends. All rights reserved

Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti are invasive fungi and the major species responsible for cryptococcosis. Lungs and brain are the main organs of infection, and cryptococcal meningoencephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous dissemination of inhaled Cryptococcus spp. from the lung to the central nervous system. They are rare in healthy individuals, while being commonly associated with HIV-infected patients and immunosuppressive individuals. These fungi are prevalent in certain regions of the world, and the most common modes of exposure are through contact with soil and bird droppings. These fungi also are found in decaying wood and in tree hollows. It is estimated that 245,000 cases of cryptococcosis occur worldwide every year causing 181,000 deaths. The majority of deaths occur in resource-limited countries where access to drugs is limited, and cost of effective treatments is high. Cryptococcosis has been creating a high impact on human health for decades, but the antifungals currently used in infected patients, such as amphotericin B, flucytosine and fluconazole, were launched only after the 1990s. Unfortunately, these drugs are toxic, not fully efficient, unavailable worldwide, or even worse; and can lead to resistance. This scenario encourages the urgency in developing new, more efficient and affordable drugs for treatment against cryptococcosis. These molecules may be used directly or in combination with traditional antifungals or considered as a precursor for developing more efficient molecules. This review attempts to summarize the main virulence factors present in Cryptococcus spp. and report the challenges concerning the search for new drugs aimed at improvement in therapy: shorter treatment time, lower risk of toxicity and minimizing the development of resistance.
Buy this Article


Buy this article
Buy this volume
Subscribe to this title
Shopping Cart

Quick Links
Search Products
Browse in Alphabetical Order : Journals
Browse by Subject Classification : Journals

Ordering Information Ordering Information
Downloadable forms Downloadable Forms