Lutein, a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various cell functions. We examined the effects of lutein on inflammatory bone resorption. In calvarial organ cultures, lutein clearly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption. In osteoblasts, lutein suppressed the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and membrane-bound PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 mRNAs, as well as prostaglandin E (PGE) production. LPS-induced bone resorption of mandibular alveolar bones was attenuated by lutein in vitro, and the loss of alveolar bone mass was restored by lutein in a mouse model of periodontal disease.
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