Polymer nanocomposites represent a family of materials that have assumed great importance in recent years and are the focus of extensive research in academia and industry. They are based on a hybrid product made of a macromolecular matrix and an organic or mineral reinforcement (filler) where in at least one of the physical dimensions can be measured in the range of nanometres; the filler is introduced in a very small amount or volume. A number of recent studies deal with their applications in engineering field and in medicine. Besides thermoplastic and thermoset polymer nanocomposites, the elastomer nanocomposites are studied for potential uses in different fields. This review focuses on the studies done recently concerning applications of elastomer nanocomposites in various areas of medicine such as therapy, tissue engineering scaffolds, antimicrobials, and drug delivery. The elastomers covered in recent studies are polyurethane, natural rubber, nitrile rubber, ethylene-propylene diene monomer, silicon rubber.
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