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Current Topics in Toxicology   Volumes    Volume 18 
Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Pappea capensis extracts
P. M. Makhoahle, S. S. Mashele
Pages: 71 - 78
Number of pages: 8
Current Topics in Toxicology
Volume 18 

Copyright © 2022 Research Trends. All rights reserved

The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the ethnomedicinal plant Pappea capensis used mostly at the Northern parts of South Africa and the neighbouring countries and found at the Limpopo province boarders was tested for cytotoxicity against the three cell lines Vero cells, MCF7 and PC. The known chemotherapeutic drug melphalan was used as the positive control for all cell lines. Cytotoxicity was determined using the dual staining procedure with a nuclear dye, Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide (PI). All live cells will stain positive with Hoechst 33342 but only dead/dying cells will stain positive with PI. The results of the cytotoxicity screening against Vero, MCF7 and PC3 cells showed no significant change for most of the extracts concentration. Both the ethanoic extract 6 and aqueous extract 7 showed no cytotoxic effect against any of the three cell lines. Methanolic extract 8 showed slight cytotoxicity at a high concentration of 250 µg/mL against Vero and MCF7 cells. This concentration of 250 µg/mL is considered physiologically irrelevant and for this reason, all extracts are considered non-cytotoxic. All the extracts are not active (cytotoxic) enough to be used for the treatment of cancer cells. The extracts were further screened for genotoxicity. Two extracts showed no genotoxic effect to the cells and were considered non-genotoxic and the ethanoic extract could be considered genotoxic. Only 30% micronucleated cells were observed at the high concentration (200 ug/ml) of ethanoic extract. The plant was found to be partially cytotoxic and moderately genotoxic for methanolic extract and ethanoic extract at 250 µg and 200 ug/ml, respectively. The active concentration of the plants extracts for both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing are considered physiologically irrelevant and for this reason, the plant is considered safe. It’s worth noting that the assertion made by the traditional healers that cancer can be cured using aqueous extraction method was proven otherwise in this study; however their claims on Pappea capensis warrant further investigations by GCMS and antimicrobial testing as it was shown to possess a little toxicity in this study.
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