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Trends in Entomology   Volumes    Volume 19 
Termiticidal efficacy of Anacardium occidentale and Syzygium aromaticum extracts and non-target toxicity on soil fauna
Kayode Lawrence Akinwande, Oyelayo R. Fabunmi, Olufunmilayo Eunice Oladipupo
Pages: 155 - 167
Number of pages: 13
Trends in Entomology
Volume 19 

Copyright © 2023 Research Trends. All rights reserved

Wood protection against insect pests such as termites (Blattodea; Termitidae) relies majorly on the use of synthetic chemicals. Continuous and indiscriminate use of these chemicals has created resistance problems, and toxicity to man, environment and non-target organisms. Hence, there is a shift towards the use of botanicals as alternative wood protectants and in pest control. The aims of this research are to determine the potency of Anacardium occidentale and Syzygium aromaticum as wood preservatives against subterranean termites, and to determine the toxicity of the plant extracts to soil fauna using Earthworm (Eisenia fetida). A. occidentale appeared more potent and had lasting protective effect on the wood blocks treated against termites than S. aromaticum when used separately but the mixtures of the extracts in the ratio 50:50 had lasting protective power on the treated wood blocks. Earthworms showed varied degree of susceptibility to the crude extracts of A. occidentale and S. aromaticum at different concentrations. Mortality was largely dependent on time of exposure and the concentrations used; it increases with the increase in exposure time and concentration. However, mortality of earthworm treated with the plant extracts is low compared to the mortality when the soil was treated with solignum, a synthetic termiticide. A. occidentale and S. aromaticum extracts either used separately or as mixture proved effective as wood protectant against termites, though, it is moderately toxic to earthworm which is considered as a non-target fauna. The toxicity might probably be due to the combination of both the solvent used and the plant extracts. Hence, the botanicals are recommended as wood protectant against termites, but the use must be regulated to prevent poisoning of soil fauna.
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