Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in muscle fibers, suggesting potential roles of vitamin D in maintaining muscle homeostasis. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3], also known as calcitriol, exerts biological effects by binding to VDR to activate both genomic and non-genomic signaling. The effects of 1α,25(OH)2D3 on myoblasts, myotubes, or skeletal muscle have been extensively investigated but the regulatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Understanding how vitamin D signaling contributes to muscle homeostasis may provide valuable insight into an effective intervention strategy for muscle wasting disorders. This review will highlight the roles of 1α,25(OH)2D3 in myoblast proliferation, differentiation, and muscle regeneration and discuss the controversial issues associated with it.
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