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Trends in Chemical Engineering   Volumes    Volume 20 
Ethanol transesterification of coffee oil by an immobilized lipase catalyst to produce biodiesel
Nathaniel Kallmyer, Joseph Carlisle, Enrico N. Martinez
Pages: 17 - 25
Number of pages: 9
Trends in Chemical Engineering
Volume 20 

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As supplies of fossil fuels are depleted, the need for alternative sources of fuel becomes evident. Biodiesel is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuel; however, cost of the feedstock, mainly vegetable oils, makes biodiesel a costly product. In the search for alternative feedstocks, spent coffee grounds were revealed to be a largely available and economical source of vegetable oil. To design a process for biodiesel production, a kinetic model is necessary. Immobilized lipase was found to be an optimal catalyst for this process due to soap formation with the alternative base catalyst. Tests were performed in a batch reactor, as well as in a packed bed reactor operating in differential and in integral regimes. A recycle reactor was used for the kinetics experiments. Reactor products were analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Mass Selective detector (GC-MS). Results indicated significant external mass transfer limitations and reversible deactivation of the catalyst between 40 and 45 °C.
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