Since the emergence of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the world concern has raised owing to the increasing and rapid spread of the virus across the globe. As of 26 May 2020, 5, 495, 061 confirmed cases with 2, 916, 236 active cases and 346, 232 deaths were reported across 188 countries. From the data reported so far, it can be deduced that COVID-19 pandemic still continues to spread across the globe at an alarming rate. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine against COVID-19; however, HIV-protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogues are currently being used for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In addition, researches aimed at developing nonhuman primate models for better understanding virus-host interactions for possible evaluation of candidate vaccine and development of novel therapeutics are underway. Studies have shown that about 81% of all COVID-19 cases are mild illnesses, suggesting a strong connection between natural recovery and a competent immune system of the discharged patients. In light of this, it is without gainsay that the implicated immune parameters could be of great importance in the development of candidate vaccine and/or novel therapeutics for COVID-19 infection. On this note, this paper highlights the overview of COVID-19 infection, current epidemiology, routes of transmission of COVID-19 and suggests novel approaches for candidate vaccine development and/or novel therapeutic antivirals against COVID-19 infection.
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