Human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a complex population of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which influence the host during homeostasis and disease. Multiple factors contribute in the composition of human gut microbiota during infancy. Diet is considered as one of the main drivers in modifying gut microbiota across a lifetime. Microbial metabolites can be the mediators for diet-induced host-microbial crosstalk, which is important for health. This review provides an overview about gut microbiota compositions and its metabolite function due to their significant impact on human wellbeing. Gut microbiota can be classified into 12 phyla and three enterotypes. The microbiota compositions can be affected by several factors such as delivery method, diet, geographic location, antibiotics, and host factors. Gut microbiota absorbs nutrients from the host and diet to support their growth and release metabolites, which are produced through fermentation. These diet-derived metabolites consist of short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, microbial tryptophan metabolites, and trimethylamine N-oxide. Each individual has a unique gut microbiota composition that influences host nutrient metabolism, physiology, and immune system development. Microbial metabolites were generated through microorganism–microorganism, and host–microorganism interactions, and there is a growing appreciation for the role of this metabolic interaction in human health and disease. Understanding the role of gut microbiota in some diseases is fundamental for developing ultimate appropriate therapeutic approaches. Targeting specific metabolites of gut microbiota will potentially contribute to improve our health.
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