Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), which belongs to the TGF-beta superfamily, is contained in large amounts in the bony cortex of the whole body and small amounts in soft tissue and the circulation. The unique biochemical ability of BMP is osteoinduction. To date, over thirty isoforms of BMP have been identified, which construct the BMP subfamily. Recently, some specific isoforms of recombinant human BMP have been produced using DNA gene technology. At the point of the osteoinducing mechanism, BMP differentiates immature mesenchymal cells to osteoblasts, and produces bony tissue even in soft tissue. However, it is not known how each isoform acts during osteogenesis or osteoinduction in the body. Therefore, in the present study, the basic aspects of BMP were thoroughly investigated and the clinical application of BMP in skeletal reconstruction as an endogenous tissue engineering was discussed.
Here the basic aspects and the preclinical studies of BMP for tissue engineering are discussed and reviewed.
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