Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent malignancy worldwide. Although resection or local therapy with radiofrequency ablation could improve survival, a significant portion of patients is unable to undergo those curative therapies due to multiple tumor occurrence or vascular involvement. Those patients are often treated with intraarterial infusion of chemotherapeutic agents. Although there is no standard chemotherapy regimen, intraarterial infusion of CDDP, alone or in combination with 5-FU, or intraarterial infusion of 5-FU and subcutaneous injection of IFN, have been reported to be effective for advanced HCC. Moreover, attempts at radiotherapy or immuno-therapy have achieved promising results. Despite those advances, overall survival of patients with HCC has not been improved over the past three decades. Future development of molecular targeting therapies or new chemotherapeutic agents and overcoming drug resistance may enhance survival.
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