Actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic network composed of filamentous actin and a large subset of actin-associated proteins which mediate various house keeping functions by generating mechanical force in response to external stimuli or internal signaling. Unlike most eukaryotes, actin constitutes relatively minor component of the trypanosomatid cytoskeleton which is mainly characterized by a densely packed array of microtubules. However, high degree of divergence in the sequences of actin and actin binding proteins of trypanosomatids arguably exerts an entirely different influence on cellular physiology and draw attention on their therapeutic values. Here we review structural and functional aspects of trypanosomatid actin cytoskeleton in light of the available data.
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