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Trends in Cancer Research   Volumes    Volume 7 
Regulation of lymphangiogenesis in human gastric cancer
Yasuhiko Kitadai, Michiyo Kodama
Pages: 87 - 93
Number of pages: 7
Trends in Cancer Research
Volume 7 

Copyright © 2011 Research Trends. All rights reserved

Tumor lymphangiogenesis is regulated by lymphangiogenic factors released by tumor cells and stromal cells into the microenvironment of  the neoplastic tissue. Of known lymphangiogenic factors, the best-characterized are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and -D, which bind to VEGF receptor-3 on lymphatic endothelial cells. In gastric cancer, tumor cells produce both VEGF-C and -D. Expression of VEGF-C, but not VEGF-D, correlates directly with lymph node metastasis of early-stage gastric cancer. Some gastric cancer cells express VEGF receptor-3 as well as VEGF-C and -D ligands,  and VEGF-C and -D can stimulate growth and invasion and inhibit apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in an autocrine manner. We found recently that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-β is expressed in tumor-associated lymphatic endothelial cells and that cancer cells produce PDGF-BB, which also acts as a lymphangiogenic factor for gastric cancer. We review the current understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of human gastric cancer.
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