The genus Eucalyptus is a unique source of a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. In addition to the volatile terpenic compounds characteristic of Eucalyptus trees, many other interesting chemical substances are biosynthesized via different metabolic pathways. The essential oils comprise terpenes, β-triketones, and simple acylphloroglucinols. Acylphloroglucinol-terpene adducts, acylphloroglucinol dimers, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenes, and glucose esters of oleuropeic acid are non-volatile Eucalyptus compounds. Secondary metabolites isolated from Eucalyptus trees have been tested for their antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities, and they have also shown antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, and antiviral effects.
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