Multiple myeloma (MM) is an uncontrolled differentiation of plasma B cells and the deposits in the bone marrow. MM accounts for 10% of blood cancers and nearly more than 22,000 new cases are diagnosed yearly in the United States. MM is associated with aggressive clinical manifestations including hematological and metabolic diseases. In addition, bone complications are common in more than 60% of cases such as osteoporosis, bone lesions and fractures. Complicated molecular signaling pathogenesis pathways are involved in the MM disease which accounts for the difficult disease control. MM remains an incurable disease despite the recent discovery of novel proteasome inhibitor (Bortezomib). This review addresses the molecular signaling pathways associated with MM progression and survival, and further demonstrates the mechanisms, molecular targets, and the development of current anti-MM agents. Also, we address the recent discoveries in MM molecular targeting as well as the recent discoveries and development of small molecules in patents and/or clinical trials.
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