Thyroid cancer is present in about 5% of thyroid nodules. Generally it is a well differentiated cancer originating from follicular epithelium. Undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas arising from C cells are less frequent. The fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) allows the diagnosis of nature of thyroid nodules in the majority of cases, but it has some limitations particularly in presence of follicular lesions. Several immunocytochemical and molecular markers have been proposed to ameliorate diagnostic accuracy of this procedures, but only few of them could be employed in routine clinical practice. It is necessary find not only new markers, but also new methods which could be used in routine clinical practice.
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