A DNA vaccination is a feasible and convenient way to elicit an antigen-specific immune response. However, naked DNA vaccines are not strong enough for the prophylaxis or immunotherapy required in on-going vaccine trials. Various attempts have been made to strengthen it to obtain more potent and longer lasting immune responses. In fact, advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have allowed allow the application of various approaches in DNA vaccines. Several approaches are now known to be effective in amplifying DNA-raised immune responses. The co-administration of DNA vaccines and genetic or conventional adjuvants occupies central place in this regard. Modification of antigen or adjuvant molecules is also a fascinating and effective approach. DNA vaccines themselves possess their own adjuvant activity owing to the presence of unmethylated CpG motifs in particular base contents This article recapitulates the current attempts to amplify DNA-raised immune responses for infectious disease control.
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