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The fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels are traditionally used in Morocco to prepare an edible oil. In addition, the leaves of this plant are used to feed the cattle and its wood is used as fuel. Consequently argan tree has been a crucuial plant for some populations for decades. However, deforestation highly endangered argan-groves. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed to slow down the desert progress in North Africa. Consequently, an ambitious program aimed to increase the short term economical value of argan tree and containing as one of its initial steps its phytochemical analysis, is now currently carried out in Morocco. Comprehensive chemical knowledge of Argania spinosa is reported in this review.