Studies on annelid bioactive peptides have been behind those of molluscs and arthropods. In the 1990`s, much progress in isolation and characterization of annelid bioactive peptides has been made, which began with isolation of FMRFamide and its related peptides. Two major strategies were taken for screening peptides, immunological and biological assays. The former assay enabled us to discover many peptides and their precursors which have structural similarity with vertebrate peptides, while the latter assay revealed several novel peptides which show bioactivity. One characteristic aspect of annelid peptides is close structural similarity to molluscan peptides. This mini review aims at making a list of annelid bioactive peptides which have been chemically identified.
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